Napoléon I


Napoléon I
(1769-1821)
   military genius, emperor of the French
   one of history's greatest military commanders, who conquered, ruled, and influenced much of Europe and instituted many reforms of the revolution of 1789, Napoléon Bonaparte was born in Ajaccio, Corsica, the second son of letizia ramolino and carlo buonaparte. Bonaparte had three sisters and four brothers, and their parents were both of the Corsican-italian gentry. Napoléon was educated at the college of Autun and at military schools in Bri-enne and Paris. In 1785, at age 16, he was commissioned a second lieutenant in the artillery and, in 1791, became a lieutenant colonel in the Corsican National Guard. However, when Corsica declared its independence in 1793, as a republican and French patriot, Bonaparte fled with his family to France. with the rank of captain at the siege of the naval base at Toulon, Bonaparte contributed to a victory (1793) that earned him a promotion to brigadier general. In 1795, in Paris, he was asked by paul barras and others to save the directory government from the mob. In 1796, he married Joséphine de beau-harnais and was made commander of the French army in Italy. Defeating four Austrian armies in succession, he forced Austria and its allies to accept the Treaty of Campo Formio, which provided that France maintain most of its conquests. He established the Cisalpine Republic in northern Italy and strengthened his own position in France by sending many treasures back to Paris. in 1798, he was sent to strike at the British in Egypt, which he conquered. His fleet, however, was destroyed by the British. in Egypt, he reformed the government, while scholars who had accompanied him began the scientific study of ancient Egypt. in 1799, he won a great victory over the Turks at Aboukir. Back in France, he organized a coup d'état (18 Brumaire, Year VIII [November 9, 1799]) with the help of the Abbé Emmanuel sieyès, charles-maurice de talleyrand, joseph fouché, joachim murat, and his brother lucien bonaparte. In the new regime, the Consulate (jean-jacques cambacérès and charles lebrun), Napoléon held almost dictatorial powers. As first consul, and then according to a constitutional revision in 1802, as consul for life, he promulgated a new constitution; reformed finances, the justice system, and the administration; established a wide educational system; and created the Bank of France, the legion of honor, and a new civil code (Code Napoléon). He also concluded a concordat with the pope (1801) to appease his Catholic subjects and end the Revolution's conflict with the church. in 1800, he assured his power by crossing the Alps and defeating the Austrians at Marengo, then negotiated a peace establishing the Rhine as France's eastern border. in May 1804, the senate declared Napoléon Bonaparte emperor of the French, under the title Napoléon i, and proclaimed a hereditary monarchy, ratified by a plebiscite. The pope, Pius vii, came to Paris for the coronation, which took place on December 2 of that year in Notre-Dame cathedral and at which Napoléon crowned himself, then Joséphine. Napoléon established an imperial court, and the members of his family were made royalty, while other titles and honors were given to his supporters. The italian Republic was proclaimed a kingdom, with Napoléon as king and eugène de beauharnais as viceroy. After 1805, Napoléon was again at war in Europe. Austrian-Russian forces were defeated at Austerlitz on December 2, 1805, and in 1806 he seized Naples and named his brother joseph Bonaparte as king. The Dutch Republic was given to his brother louis bonaparte and his wife, hortense de beauharnais, as the kingdom of Holland, and the Confederation of the Rhine was established with himself as protector, marking the end of the Holy Roman Empire. The Prussians were defeated at Jena and Auerstadt (1806) and the Russians at Friedland. At Tilsit (July 1807), Czar Alexander I of Russia was made an ally and Prussia was reduced in size. New states were also added to the Empire, including the duchy of warsaw and the kingdom of Westphalia (under Napoléon's brother jérôme bonaparte). At the same time, Napoléon established the Continental system to blockade British goods. In 1807, he seized Portugal and in 1808 made his brother Joseph king of spain, awarding Naples to his sister Caroline bonaparte and her husband joachim murat (other portions of Italy were given to his sisters élisa bonaparte and pauline bonaparte). The French entrance into Spain, however, brought about the Peninsular War, which eventually caused many French casualties and weakened the Empire in a bloody guerrilla conflict. In 1809, the Austrians were again defeated (at Wagram) and Napoléon annexed the Illyrian Provinces. At the same time, he abolished the Papal States. He also divorced Joséphine, who could not give him an heir, and married (1810) the Habsburg princess marie-louise of habsburg-lorraine, the daughter of the Austrian emperor, thus linking his dynasty to one of the oldest in Europe. A son (napoléon ii) was born in 1811 and was immediately proclaimed king of Rome. The first empire now reached its largest extent with the annexation of Liibeck, Bremen, and other parts of northern Germany, along with the entire kingdom of Holland. At its height, the Empire was composed of 130 departments, with sweden having elected French general Bernadotte as King charles XIV. In all the new states created by the emperor, the Code Napoléon was established as law; universal male suffrage was proclaimed; and French judicial and administrative reforms were imposed. in 1812, Napoléon ended his alliance with Czar Alexander and invaded Russia with his Grande Armée. The invasion ended in a disastrous retreat from Moscow, and subsequently all Europe united against the French. Napoléon continued to fight (Leipzig, October 1813) but was defeated by the Allies (Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Sweden), who then entered Paris. He was forced to abdicate (April 1814) and went into exile on the island of Elba in the Mediterranean sea. Meanwhile, opposition had grown in France against the regime of the newly installed Bourbon king, louis XV III. Napoléon arrived back in France and made a triumphant return to Paris (March 20, 1815). During the hundred days, as this period is known, he tried to reestablish his power and make peace with the Allies, which was rejected. He met his final defeat at Waterloo in Belgium (June 18, 1815). Surrendering to the Allies, he was exiled to the remote South Atlantic island of Saint Helena with a few faithful retainers, and he stayed there until his death. His remains were returned to France in 1840 and interred in the invalides in Paris. In his last years, and after his death, the Napoleonic legend was created, as he had dictated his Mémoires to emmanuel las cases. In them, Napoléon maintained that he had preserved and given the achievements of the Revolution to the world.

France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present . 1884.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Napoleon — Napoléon Bonaparte (als Kaiser: Napoleon I.; * 15. August 1769 in Ajaccio auf Korsika als Napoleone Buonaparte[1]; † 5. Mai 1821 in Longwood House auf St. Helena im Süd Atlantik) war ein französischer General, Staatsmann und Kaiser …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Napoleon I. — Napoléon Bonaparte (als Kaiser: Napoleon I.; * 15. August 1769 in Ajaccio auf Korsika als Napoleone Buonaparte[1]; † 5. Mai 1821 in Longwood House auf St. Helena im Süd Atlantik) war ein französischer General, Staatsmann und Kaiser …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Napoléon — Bonaparte (als Kaiser: Napoleon I.; * 15. August 1769 in Ajaccio auf Korsika als Napoleone Buonaparte[1]; † 5. Mai 1821 in Longwood House auf St. Helena im Süd Atlantik) war ein französischer General, Staatsmann und Kaiser …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Napoléon I. — Napoléon Bonaparte (als Kaiser: Napoleon I.; * 15. August 1769 in Ajaccio auf Korsika als Napoleone Buonaparte[1]; † 5. Mai 1821 in Longwood House auf St. Helena im Süd Atlantik) war ein französischer General, Staatsmann und Kaiser …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Napoleon — Napoléon Ier « Napoléon » redirige ici. Pour les autres significations, voir Napoléon (homonymie) et Bonaparte …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Napoleon 1 — Napoléon Ier « Napoléon » redirige ici. Pour les autres significations, voir Napoléon (homonymie) et Bonaparte …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Napoleon 3 — Napoléon III Napoléon III Empereur des Français …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Napoléon — Ier « Napoléon » redirige ici. Pour les autres significations, voir Napoléon (homonymie) et Bonaparte …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Napoléon 1 — Napoléon Ier « Napoléon » redirige ici. Pour les autres significations, voir Napoléon (homonymie) et Bonaparte …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Napoléon 3 — Napoléon III Napoléon III Empereur des Français …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Napoléon I — Napoléon Ier « Napoléon » redirige ici. Pour les autres significations, voir Napoléon (homonymie) et Bonaparte …   Wikipédia en Français


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